C.V. for Daniel M. Spencer, Ph.D.

////C.V. for Daniel M. Spencer, Ph.D.
C.V. for Daniel M. Spencer, Ph.D. 2018-01-15T21:55:03+00:00

CURRICULUM VITAE

DANIEL M. SPENCER, Ph.D.
School of Travel Industry Management
University of Hawaii, Manoa
346 George Hall
Honolulu, HI 96822
Tel: 808-956-8124
Email: dan.spencer@hawaii.edu

 

Education

Michigan State University – 1983

Ph.D.  Park and Recreation Resources.
Emphasis on research and quantitative methods in recreation and tourism research. Minors in Communication and Geography. Curriculum included courses in recreation economics, marketing, marketing research, social survey methods, and statistics.

Michigan State University – 1979

M.S. Park and Recreation Resources. Emphasis on recreation and tourism policy, planning, and management. Minor in Geography. Supported in part by a Graduate Office Scholarship. Curriculum included courses in leisure concepts and theories, research methods, recreation resource law, computer mapping, management, public administration, statistics, urban planning, and recreation and tourism policy, planning, and management.

Michigan State University – 1977

B.S. “With High Honor,” Park and Recreation Resources. Emphasis on the planning and design of recreation and tourism facilities. Honors College curriculum included courses in leisure concepts and theories, conservation, ecology, natural resource law, recreation resource policy, political science, sociology, economics, recreation economics, urban planning, landscape architecture, accounting, and computer programming.

Academic Experience

University of Hawaii at Manoa

Professor
School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, 2013 – present.

Fellow
Center for Sustainable Coastal Tourism, 2011 – present.

Associate Professor

School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.
Tenured, 2013

Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Tourism and Hospitality Management Program

Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD.

Visiting Associate Professor and Assistant Director of the Center for Tourism Research

Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD.

Assistant Director

Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD.

Independent consultant and scholar

East Lansing, MI.

Assistant Director and Senior Research Associate

Travel, Tourism, and Recreation Resource Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, .

Senior Research Associate

Travel, Tourism, and Recreation Resource Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI .

Research Associate

Department of Park and Recreation Resources, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI .

Courses Taught

  • TIM 101 classroom – Introduction to Travel Industry Management
  • TIM 101 online – Introduction to Travel Industry Management
  • TIM 321 – Sociocultural Issues in Tourism
  • TIM 324 – Geography of Global Tourism
  • TIM 420 – Sustainable Tourism Policies and Practices
  • TIM 425 – Destination Development and Marketing
  • TIM 431, writing intensive, capstone course – Strategic Management for the Travel/Hospitality Industry
  • TIM 601 – Research Applications in Travel Industry Management
  • TIM 602 – Strategic Travel Marketing
  • TIM 607 – Global Tourism Analysis
  • TIM 695 – Seminar in Travel Industry Management PolicyTIM 699 – Directed Readings

Publications

Selected Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Spencer, Daniel M. and Allison P. Adams (2017). “Viability of Nonresident Open Water Swimming Event Competitors as a Target Market: A Case Study. Event Management. To appear in 21(4).
  2. Spencer, Daniel M. (2013). “Trouble in Paradise: The 2007-2009 Global Economic Recession and Hawaii’s Visitor Industry.” International Journal of Tourism Research. 15(6): 535-553.
  3. Spencer, Daniel M.  (2013). “Effectiveness of Intra-Destination Television Advertising of Tourist Attractions and Facilities.” Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 2(3): 155-164.
  4. Spencer, Daniel M. (2013). “Understanding Local Versus Tourist Visitors to Recreation Areas.” Managing Leisure. 18(1): 1-15.
  5. Spencer, Daniel M. and Christian Nsiah (2013). “The Economic Consequences of Community Support for Tourism: A Case Study of a Heritage Fish Hatchery.” Tourism Management. 34(February): 221-230.
  6. Spencer, Daniel M. (2012). “Understanding Recreation Activity Participants as Clientele Groups of Multi-Use Recreation Areas.” Annals of Leisure Research. 15(3): 226-241.
  7. Spencer, Daniel M. and John Henry Glover (2011). “An Exploratory Study of Attitudes Toward Tourism on American Indian Reservations.” International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. 1(2): 154-172.
  8. Spencer, Daniel M. (2010). “Facilitating Public Participation in Tourism Planning on American Indian Reservations: A Case Study Involving the Nominal Group Technique.” Tourism Management. 31:684-690.
  9. Spencer, Daniel M. (2010). “Segmenting Special Interest Visitors to a Destination Region Based on the Volume of Their Expenditures: An Application to Rail-Trail Users.” Journal of Vacation Marketing. 16(2): 83-95.
  10. Spencer, Daniel M. (2009). “Airport Stops and Flights on Small Airplanes as Inhibitors of Tourism-related Air Travel: A Case Study.” Tourism Management. 30(6):838-846.
  11. Spencer, Daniel M. and Donald F. Holecek (2007). “A Profile of the Fall Foliage Tourism Market.” Journal of Vacation Marketing. 13(4):339-358.
  12. Spencer, Daniel M. and Donald F. Holecek (2007). “Basic Characteristics of the Fall Tourism Market.” Tourism Management. 28:491-504.
  13. Yoon, Semok, Daniel M. Spencer, Donald F. Holecek, and Dae-Kwan Kim (2000). “A Profile of Michigan’s Festival and Special Event Tourism Market.” Event Management. 6(1):33-44.
  14. Spencer, Daniel M., Dae-Kwan Kim, Charles M. Nelson, and Donald F. Holecek (1999). “Characteristics and Behavior of Tourists Who Use Trails.” Current Issues in Tourism. 2(2&3):174-196.

Selected Papers Published in Conference Proceedings

  1. Spencer, Daniel M. (2015). “Managing Heavily Visited Marine Sanctuaries Serving Diverse Nationality Groups: The Case of Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve”, 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 12, 2015.
  2. Spencer, Daniel M. and Allison P. Adams (2015). “Viability of Nonresident Open Water Swimming Event Competitors as a Target Market: A Case Study”, 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 10, 2015.
  3. Spencer, Daniel M. (2013). “Monitoring Destination Sustainability: The Case of Hawaii.” Proceedings of the 44th Annual International Conference of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, June 20-22, Kansas City, MO. Whitehall, MI: Travel and Tourism Research Association.

Selected Research Reports

  1. Spencer, Daniel M. (2014). “Characteristics, Opinions, and Behavior Patterns of Visitors to Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve”. Report UNIHI-SEAGRANT-SS-12-01. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
  2. Spencer, Daniel M. (2013). “A Tourism Sustainability Monitoring System for Hawaii”. Report UNIHI-SEAGRANT-QQ-12-01. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program.
  3. Spencer, Daniel M. (2008). “A Profile of Nonresident Visitors to the D.C. Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery.” Report submitted to the Booth Society, Inc. Spearfish, SD: College of Business and Technology, Black Hills State University.
  4. Spencer, Daniel M. (2007). “Characteristics, Motivations, and Aspirations of New Freshmen Attending Black Hills State University.” Submitted to Dr. Kay Schallenkamp, President, Black Hills State University. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.
  5. Spencer, Daniel M. (2007). “South Dakota Travel Monitoring System User’s Manual.” Submitted to Office of Tourism, South Dakota Department of Tourism and State Development. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.
  6. Spencer, Daniel M. and John Henry Glover (2007). “Results of the 2007 Survey of SDSU Spring Pow Wow Attendees.” Submitted to Steve Martin, Native American Student Advisor, South Dakota State University. Spearfish, SD: Black Hills State University.
  7. Spencer, Daniel M. and John Henry Glover (2007). “Results of the 2006 Survey of Black Hills Pow Wow Attendees.” Submitted to Black Hills Pow Wow Association, Rapid City, SD. Spearfish, SD: Office of Native Educational Endeavors, Black Hills State University.
  8. Spencer, Daniel M. (2006). “Characteristics and Behavior of Tourists Who Visited the George S. Mickelson Trail During the 2005 Peak Season.” Submitted to Black Hills Community Economic Development/Mickelson Trail Coalition. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.
  9. Spencer, Daniel M., Robert H. Holsman, Diane Lueck, and Christine L. Thomas (2006). “Effects of the ‘Becoming an Outdoors-Woman’ Program on Recruitment and Retention of Hunter, Anglers, and Other Outdoor Recreationists in South Dakota.” Submitted to South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.
  10. Spencer, Daniel M. and John Henry Glover (2006). “Results of the 2006 Survey of Lakota Omniciye Wacipi (Powwow) Attendees.” Submitted to BHSU administrators. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research and Office of Native Educational Endeavors, Black Hills State University.
  11. Spencer, Daniel M., Thomas Dunn, and Christine V. Coolidge (2005). “Tribal Members’ Views About Tourism Development Alternatives for Land Parcels Owned by the Sisseton-Wahpeton Tribe.” Submitted to Reservation Planning Commission, Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.
  12. Spencer, Daniel M. (2005). “Potential Demand For and Characteristics of Individuals Interested in an Electronic Device Designed to Increase Tourists’ Length of Stay in Rural South Dakota.” Submitted to States Pride, LLC, Vermillion, SD. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.
  13. Spencer, Daniel M., Thomas Dunn, and Christine Coolidge (2005). “Mickelson Trail Management and Marketing: Results of a Focus Group Discussion.” Submitted to Black Hills Community Economic Development/Mickelson Trail Coalition. Spearfish, SD: Center for Tourism Research, Black Hills State University.

Taught in Abu Dhabi to Abu Dhabi Tourism and Culture Authority officials, 2011 – 2013:

Sustainable Tourism Management
Developing, Marketing, and Managing Cultural Tourism

Taught in Honolulu for the School of Travel Industry Management’s Executive Development Institute for Tourism (attended mostly by national tourism administration executives), 2011 – 2015:
Tourism Promotion
Sustainable Tourism Management
Tourism Data Analytics: Management Tools for Travel and Tourism

Taught in Honolulu to other overseas executives (e.g., Chinese city administrators, travel agents, Executive MBA students), 2011 – 2012:
Tourism Destination Marketing
Destination Marketing: Integrated Branding and Communications
Strategic Management of Tourism
Introduction to Travel Industry Management and Hawaii Tourism

Taught in East Lansing, Michigan to Michigan State University Extension professionals, 1991 – 1992:
Tourism Data Analytics: Management Tools for Travel and Tourism

  • Excellence in Teaching Award, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2012 and 2015.
  • State Award of Meritorious Service, Epsilon Sigma Phi (national honorary fraternity of Extension professionals), 1995.  For “. . . significantly contribut[ing] to the orderly development of Michigan’s tourism industry by creating and disseminating information needed for sound investment, planning, and marketing decisions.”
  • For publications:
    • Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report entitled “A Regional Analysis of Michigan’s Tourism Resources for Marketing Purposes,” was rated “Best of Class” in the American Economic Development Council’s 1997 Sales Literature and Promotional Materials Awards Competition (Research Report category).
    • Paper entitled “Discovering the Fall Tourist” (with Edward M. Mahoney) won the Second Annual Research Paper Competition sponsored by the CenStates Chapter of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, 1992.
    • Master’s degree paper entitled “An Analysis of Former and Potential Skiers’ Perceptions of Downhill Skiing” received a Merit Award in the 1980 Wesley Ballaine Travel Research Contest sponsored by the Travel Research Association.
    • Second edition of Travel and Tourism in Michigan: A Statistical Profile was rated “Superior” in the American Economic Development Council’s 1992 Sales Literature and Promotional Materials Awards Competition (Research Reports/Industry Analysis category).
  • Group 70 International, Inc., Honolulu, HI, 2014. Conducted a strategic assessment of tourism in French Polynesia. (With Chuck Y. Gee).
  • Public Policy Associates, Inc., Lansing, MI, 2004. Contributed to research design and computer mapping.
  • Site Design and Presentation, Lansing, MI, 1985. Critiqued methods of forecasting attendance at a proposed attraction in northern Michigan.
  • Sno-engineering, Inc. Bellevue, WA. 1983. Updated Mt. Bohemia ski area feasibility study. (With Edward M. Mahoney).

Selected Service to the School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa:

  • Chair, Teaching Award Committee, Spring 2013 and Spring 2017
  • Chair, Faculty Personnel Committee, Fall 2015 and Fall 2016
  • Chair, Graduate Faculty Committee, Aug. 2015 – Aug. 2017
  • Chair, Faculty Senate, July 2012 – June 2014 and July 2015 – June 2017
  • Chair, Assistant Professor Search Committees, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, Spring and Fall 2013, Spring 2016
  • Chair, Instructor Search Committee, Fall 2016
  • Chair, Faculty Research Committee, Aug. 2010 – June 2011
  • Chair, Ad Hoc Articulation Committee, Spring 2016
  • Advisor to Dean on course scheduling, October 2015 – present
  • Secretary, Faculty Senate, July 2011 – June 2012
  • Led revision of the multidisciplinary Certificate in Sustainable Tourism, Spring 2012
  • Facilitated and coordinated the School of Travel Industry Management’s collaboration with the Global Environmental Sciences Program (GES) to create a “Sustainable Tourism” track option for GES Bachelor of Science students, 2016
  • Facilitated and coordinated a successful proposal to cross-list a new undergraduate Ocean and Earth Science and Technology course on “Environmental Management Systems” with the School of Travel Industry Management, 2016

University-level service to the University of Hawaii at Manoa:

  • Chair, Tenure and Promotion Review Committee, Nov. 2016 – Mar. 2017
  • Member, Strategic Planning Committee, Sept. 2011 – April 2013
  • Member, Tenure and Promotion Review Committee, Nov. 2013 – Mar. 2014
  • Member, School of Travel Industry Management Dean Search Advisory Committee, Aug. 2013 –Mar. 2014

Invited service to the profession:

  • Invited keynote speaker, “Trouble in Paradise: The 2007-2009 Global Economic Recession and Hawaii’s Visitor Industry”, 51st Annual Meeting of the Western Regional Science Association, Poipu, Kauai, HI, Feb. 8, 2012
  • Invited panelist, “Information Technology and Sustainable Tourism”, 2013 Ambassador and Mrs. “Bill” Lane Jr. Lectureship on Sustainable Tourism and the Environment, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Nov. 25, 2013
  • Invited panelist, “Careers in Tourism Research”, Student Research Colloquium, 44th Annual Conference of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, June 20, 2013
  • Invited participant, Second Exploratory Conference on Transportation Issues Affecting Tourism and Recreational Travel, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration, 1994
  • Invited participant, task force guiding the design of the Online Rural Tourism Opportunities Welcome Network, a destination information system developed by the national office of the Cooperative Extension Service, 1994
  • Invited principal author of a report on the 24th Annual Conference of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, published in the Annals of Tourism Research (with Joseph D. Fridgen), 1994
  • Chaired session on “Tourist Motivations and Constraints” at the 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, Nov. 10, 2015.
  • Ad hoc manuscript reviewer for:
    • Scholarly journals–33 reviews of article manuscripts completed for the following journals:
      • Tourism Management
      • Human Dimensions of Wildlife
      • Tourism Planning and Development
      • Journal of Sustainable Tourism
      • Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
      • International Journal of Tourism Research
      • International Journal of Tourism Anthropology
      • Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure, and Events
      • Journal of Park and Recreation Administration
      • Journal of Leisure Research
    • Research conferences
      • 44th Annual Travel and Tourism Research Association Conference (three extended abstracts reviewed), 2013
      • 51st Annual Meeting of the Western Regional Science Association (one paper reviewed), 2012
    • Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association (one book manuscript reviewed), 1987

Service to professional associations

  • Member, Executive Committee, Hawaii Chapter of Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), 2016–present. Lead organizer of PATA-Hawaii Student Forum, 2016 and 2017.
    Service to the CenStates Chapter of the Travel and Tourism Research Association:

    • Member, Board of Directors, 1997–99
    • Coordinated student research paper competition, 1999
    • Chair of Membership Committee, 1995
    • Wrote a quarterly column on Michigan travel activity for CenStates News, 1991–95

Other service to the profession:

  • Administrator, Tourism Research Information Network (TRINET), May 2013 – present
  • Member, Travel and Tourism Research Association
  • Member, Hawaii Chapter of Pacific Asia Travel Association

Grant award totals for solely authored research and outreach proposals; served as principal investigator:

Externally funded: $628,788.00
Intramurally funded: $67,147.00
Subtotal: $695,325.00

Grant award totals for co-authored research proposals; served as project team member:

Extramurally funded: $551,995.00
Intramurally funded: $15,000.00
Subtotal: $566,995.00

Grand Total: $1,262,320.00

Selected extramurally funded projects proposed and led:

  • Survey of Visitors to Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve (2012) – Hawaii Sea Grant: $30,000.00
  • Develop a System to Monitor Indicators of the Sustainability of Tourism in Hawaii (Kyo-ya Fellowship) (2012) – Hawaii Sea Grant: $14,999.00
  • Aid Design and Development of the Hawaii Tourism Authority’s On-Line Analytical Processing Module (2011) – Hawaii Tourism Authority: $49,000.00
  • Refinement and Continued Operation of the South Dakota Travel Monitoring System for FY2009-10 (2009) – South Dakota Office of Tourism: $15,000.00
  • Refinement and Continued Operation of the South Dakota Travel Monitoring System for FY2007-09 (2008) – South Dakota Office of Tourism: $59,397.00
  • Marketing and Economic Impact Study of Booth Historic National Fish Hatchery (2007) – Booth Society, Inc.: $7,350.00
  • Refinement and Continued Operation of the South Dakota Travel Monitoring System for FY2006-07 (2006) – South Dakota Office of Tourism: $70,576.00
  • Intercept Survey to Evaluate Effectiveness of Internal Tourism Marketing in the Black Hills (2005) – Black Hills Travel TV: $5,000.00
  • Assessment of Tourism Development Alternatives for Three Land Parcels Using the Nominal Group Technique (2005) – Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe: $5,000,00
  • Development and Operation of the South Dakota Travel Monitoring System (2005) – South Dakota Office of Tourism: %68,189.00
  • Empirical Evaluation of the “Becoming an Outdoors-Woman” Program in South Dakota (2005) – South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks: $19,215.00
  • Focus Group Session and Marketing Survey of Mickelson Trail Daily Pass Holders (2004) – Black Hills Community Economic Development: $20,980.00

“Managing Heavily Visited Marine Sanctuaries Serving Diverse Nationality Groups: The Case of Hanauma Bay Nature Preserve”, 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 12, 2015.

“Viability of Nonresident Open Water Swimming Event Competitors as a Target Market: A Case Study”, 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, Kailua-Kona, HI, Nov. 10, 2015.

“Monitoring Destination Sustainability: The Case of Hawaii.” 44th Annual Conference of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, Kansas City, MO, June 22, 2013.

“Trouble in Paradise: The 2007-2009 Global Economic Recession and Hawaii’s Visitor Industry.” 51st Annual Meeting of the Western Regional Science Association, Poipu, Kauai, HI, Feb. 8, 2012.

“Economic Outcomes of Community Support of Tourist Attractions: A Case Study.” 51st Annual Meeting of the Western Regional Science Association, Poipu, Kauai, HI, Feb. 11, 2012.

“Highlights of the 2007 Booth Fish Hatchery Marketing and Economic Impact Study.” Annual Meeting of the Booth Society, Inc., Spearfish, SD, Jan. 13, 2009.

“Characteristics, Motivations, and Aspirations of New Freshmen Attending Black Hills State University.” Black Hills State University administrators and members of the BHSU Strategic Planning Committee, Spearfish, SD, Oct. 13, 2006.

“Characteristics and Behavior of Tourists Who Visited the Mickelson Trail During the 2005 Season.” Board of Directors, Black Hills, Badlands and Lakes Association, Rapid City, SD, June 2, 2006.

“Characteristics and Behavior of Tourists Who Camped in the Black Hills During the Summer of 2005.” South Dakota Campground Owners Association, Deadwood, SD, Mar. 10, 2006.

“An Empirical Evaluation of the Spring 2005 Campaign to Attract Dallas-Area Residents to the Black Hills.” Black Hills Air Service Task Force, Deadwood, SD, Nov. 16, 2005.

“Understanding the Fall Tourism Market.” Upper Midwest Association of Convention and Visitors Bureaus Fall Conference, La Crosse, WI, Sept. 20, 2004.

“The Year in Review: Michigan Travel Activity in 1999 Versus 1999.” 12th Annual Travel Outlook Conference, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, Mar. 8, 2000.

“Highlights from the MSU Tourism Center’s Travel Market Survey.” 2000 Michigan Chamber of Commerce Executives Conference, Lansing, MI, Feb. 16, 2000.

  • Served on two M.S. and five Ph.D. student committees at Michigan State University
  • Supervised 10 successful M.S. Plan B (professional paper) students at UHM
  • Supervised two successful M.S. Plan A (thesis) student at UHM
  • Currently supervising four M.S. Plan B students at UHM
  • Currently serving on two Ph.D. student committees for UHM Departments of Architecture and Geography
  • THM 100 Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality Management
  • THM 200 Convention, Meetings, and Event Planning
  • THM 310 Restaurant Management
  • THM 320 Lodging Management
  • BADM 321Business Statistics II
  • THM 410 Tourism Management
  • THM 450 Casino Management
  • THM 480 Tourism Planning and Development
  • PRR 844 Research Methods in Recreation, Parks, and Tourism
  • PRR 874 Leisure, Travel, and Tourism
  • Developed and taught:
    • TIM 425 Destination Development and Marketing
    • THM 200 Convention, Meetings, and Event Planning at Black Hills State University
    • BADM 321 Business Statistics II at Black Hills State University
    • RTM 580 Tourism Planning: A Cultural and International Perspective for California State University at Northridge
  • Taught only: TIM 101 Introduction to Travel Industry Management at UHM
  • Guest lectured for undergraduate and graduate courses at Michigan State University 12 times, 1983 – 2000.
  • Guest lectured on sustainable tourism for Sustainable Cities (PLAN 101) at UHM, Fall 2016.
  • Lectured on introductory travel industry management and tourism in Hawaii to visiting groups of undergraduate students from six universities in Japan and China on 15 occasions, 2011– 2017.
  • Supervised six undergraduate student internships at Black Hills State University, 2006 – 2009.
  • Received $1,500 Instructional Improvement Committee grant at Black Hills State University, 2009.
  • Revised Black Hills State University’s Tourism and Hospitality Management curriculum, 2009.
  • Served on Ph.D. examination committee at Michigan State University, 1984.
  • Founding advisor, Young Skal organization at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2010 – 2013.
  • Advised the Travel and Tourism Club at Black Hills State University, 2006 – 2010.
  • Advised an annual average of 20 undergraduate Tourism and Hospitality Management majors at Black Hills State University, 2006 – 2010.